Monday, October 30, 2006

Mathura lion capital, 120 BCE.

S'rivatsa on the Mathur lion capital with inscription in Prakrit using Kharoshthi script. (Source: Wikipedia). See brief essay on Kharoshthi/Brahmi scripts .

The inscription records that a teacher named Budhila was given a gift so that he might teach the Mahasanghikas. Đại Chúng Bộ: Ma Ha Tăng Kỳ Bộ: Mahasanghika (skt). "The Wardak vase in Afghanistan containing the relics of the Buddha was presented to the teachers of the Mahasanghikas by one Kamalagulya during the reign of Huviska. At Andharah in Afghanistan, Hsuan-Tsang found three monasteries belonging to this sect, which proves that this sect was popular in the North-West. The cave at Karle in Maharashtra records the gift of a village as also of a nine-celled hall to the adherents of the school of the Mahasanghikas. Clearly, the Mahasanghikas had a center at Karle and exercised influence over the people of the West. They were not thus confined to Magadha alone, but spread over the northern and western parts of India and had adherents scattered all over the country. In the south, the inscriptions at Amaravati stupa, about 18 miles west of Bezwada. The stupa was propably constructed in the second century B.C., its outer rail was erected in the secend century A.D. and the sculptures in the inner rail are supposed to belong to the third century A.D. The Nagarjunakonda represents, next to Amaravati, the most important Buddhist site in southern India. These structures at Nagarjunakonda obviously flourished as important centers of the branches of the Mahasanghika sect and became places of pilgrimage. It is thus apparent that the Mahasanghikas extended their activities both towards the North and the South, particularly in Guntur and Krishna district."

In Dhammapada's commentary on Petuvathu, Dvarka is associated with Kamboja as its Capital or its important city. (ref: The Buddhist Concepts of Spirits, p 81, Dr B. C. Law). See evidence below:

"Yasa asthaya gachham Kambojam dhanharika/ ayam kamdado yakkho iyam yakham nayamasai// iyam yakkham gahetvan sadhuken pasham ya/ yanam aaropyatvaan khippam gaccham Davarkaan ti// [Buddhist Text Khudak Nikaya (P.T.S)]

The depiction of molluscs flanking s'rivatsa may denote s'ankha; read rebus: sangha. S'rivatsa is read koleji 'fish'; rebus: kole.l 'temple, smithy'. (This is mleccha of Sarasvati hieroglyphs).

There are references to Mleccha hordes (that is, S'aka, Yavana, Kamboja, Pahlava) in Bala Kanda of the Valmiki Ramayana (1.54.21-23; 1.55.2-3).

tair āsīt saṃvṛtā bhūmiḥ
Śakair Yavanamiśritaiḥ || 1.54-21 ||
tais te Yavana-Kambojā barbarāś cākulīkṛtāḥ || 1-54-23 ||
tasyā huṃkārato jātāḥ Kambojā ravisannibhāḥ |
ūdhasaś cātha saṃbhūtaḥ barbarāḥ śāstrapaṇayah || 1-55-2 ||
yonideśāc ca Yavanāḥ Śakṛddeśāc Chakāḥ smṛtāḥ |
Romakūpeṣu Mlecchāś ca Hārītāh saKirātakāḥ || 1-55-3 ||

Vanaparva of Mahabharata notes: "......Mlechha (barbaric) kings of the Shakas, Yavanas, Kambojas, Bahlikas etc shall rule the earth (i.e India) un-rightously in Kaliyuga..." (MBH 3/188/34-36). Anushasanaparava of Mahabharata affirms that Mathura, was under the joint military control of the Yavanas and the Kambojas (12/102/5).

tathā YavanaKambojā
Mathurām abhitaś ca ye
ete niyuddhakuśalā

Mleccha, Kamboja, Bauddham: Sarasvati civilization continuum

--Reclaiming Hindu Civilization Studies

‘D'après l'épigraphie cambodgienne du X° siècle, les rois des "Kambuja" prétendaient descendre d'un ancêtre mythique éponyme, le sage ermite Kambu, et de la nymphe céleste Mera, dont le nom a pu être forgé d'après l'appellation ethnique "khmèr".‘

Trans. According to Kampuchean epigraphy of 10th century, the kings of the “Kambuja” claimed to descend from a mythical ancestor éponyme, the wise Kambu hermit, and celestial nymph Mera, whose name could be forged according to ethnic name “khmèr” (George Coedes, 1968, Indianised States of Southeast Asia, 1968, p 66.)

In Mekong basin, in Bassac (near Vat-Ph’u hill), there was an ancient kingdom referred to in Chinese texts as Chenla (also, Zhenla). In 613 CE, Isanapura was the capital of this early Khmer kingdom. Champassak province of modern-day Laos was in the northern part known as ‘Chenla of the Land’; the Mekong delta and the coast was in the southern part known a ‘Chenla of the Water’. . The lineage after Muni Kambu includes: S’rutavarma Kambuja, S’reshthavarma Kambuja, Viravarma Kambuja, Bhavavarman I, Jayavarman II.
"Yonā, Yavanā, Yonakā

A country and its people. The name is probably the Pāli equivalent for Ionians, the Baktrian Greeks. The Yonas are mentioned with the Kambojas in Rock Edicts v. and xii of Asoka, as a subject people, forming a frontier district of his empire. The country was converted by the Thera Mahārakkhita, who was sent there after the Third Council (Mhv.xii.5; Dpv.viii.9; Sp.i.67).

In the time of Milinda the capital of the Yona country was Sāgala (Mil.1). It is said (Mhv.xxix.39) that at the Foundation Ceremony of the Mahā Thūpa, thirty thousand monks, under Yona Mahādhammarakkhita, came from Alasandā in the Yona country. Alasandā was evidently the headquarters of the Buddhist monks at that time. Alasandā is generally identified (See, e.g., Geiger, Mhv. Trs. 194, n.3) with the Alexandria founded by the Macedonian king (Alexander) in the country of the Paropanisadae near Kābul.

In the Assalāyana Sutta (M.ii.149), Yona and Kamboja are mentioned as places in which there were only two classes of people, masters and slaves, and the master could become a slave or vice versa. The Commentary (MA.ii.784) explains this by saying that supposing a brahmin goes there and dies, his children might consort with slaves, in which case their children would be slaves. In later times, the name Yavanā or Yonā seems to have included all westerners living in India and especially those of Arabian origin (Cv.Trs.ii.87, n.1). Yonaka, statues, holding lamps, were among the decorations used by the Sākiyans of Kapilavatthu (MA.ii.575). The language of the Yavanas is classed with the Milakkhabhāsā (E.g., DA.i.276; VibhA.388).

The Anguttara Commentary (AA.i.51) records that from the time of Kassapa Buddha the Yonakas went about clad in white robes, because of the memory of the religion which was once prevalent there."

[Quelle: Malalasekera, G. P. <1899 - 1973>: Dictionary of Pāli proper names. -- Nachdruck der Ausgabe 1938. -- London : Pali Text Society, 1974. -- 2 vol. -- 1163, 1370 S. -- ISBN 0860132692. -- s. v.]


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